This is the second part in my series on Finding and Decoding Malicious PowerShell Scripts. My first blog post walked through how to find malicious PowerShell scripts in the System event log, and the various steps to decode them. In this post, I wanted to discuss another location where malicious PowerShell scripts might be hiding - the Registry.
The Registry is a great place for an attacker to establish persistence. Popular locations for this are the Run keys located in either the Software Hive, or in a User's ntuser.dat hive. For a list of run keys, check out the Forensic Wiki.
A technique I've seen in some cases I've worked is an attacker using PowerShell in the Run key to call another key that contains the base64 code that contains a payload.
Let's see what an example of this looks like. Using Eric Zimmerman's Registry Explorer I've navigated to the following registry key: HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run. Underneath the value "hztGpoWa" the following entry is made:
You can also use Harlan's RegRipper's soft_run plugin to pull this information:
rip.exe -r SOFTWARE -p soft_run
(for the NTUSER.DAT hive, use the user_run plugin)
So what does this command do? %COMSPEC% is the system variable for cmd.exe. This uses cmd.exe to launch PowerShell in a hidden window. It then uses the PowerShell command "Get-Item" to get another registry key - HKLM:Software\4MX64uqR, and the value Dp8m09KD under that key.
Browsing to the HKLM:Software\4MX64uqR key in Registry Explorer reveals a whole mess of base64:
Another way to pull base64 like this from the registry is to use the "sizes" plugin from RegRipper. This will search the registry hive for values over a certain threshold and dump them out:
rip.exe -r SOFTWARE -p sizes
(A thanks to Harlan for updating this plugin! Make sure to update it if you haven't recently.)
To see the detailed steps of how to decode this base64, take a look at my earlier blog post on decoding malicious PowerShell scripts.
Here are the high-level steps to decode it:
Decode unicode base64 in registry key
Decode and decompress (gzip) embedded base64
Decode another round of embedded base64
payload = shellcode
Try running scdb.exe or strings over shellcode for resulting IP address and port
The resulting code more often than not is a way to establish a Meterpreter reverse shell.
Another way to find instances of malicious PowerShell in the registry is to search the registry for "%COMSPEC%".
I used Registry Explorer and it's handy Find command to do this. Make sure and have the right "Search in" boxes selected:
While this example showed registry keys and values with random names - this is not always the case. These names can be whatever the attacker wants and they will not always be an obvious tip off like a random name.
For my example, I used Metasploit to install this persistence mechanism in the registry. Check out all the options available. As mentioned above, the registry key/value names may be set to anything:
My next post on malicious PowerShell scripts will cover PowerShell logging and pulling information from memory. Happy Hunting!